Housekeeping: Good morning, guys! Welcome back!
We have a lot to get through this semester, so make sure you got your game face on. Those of you who have gotten your IA topics approved will have time in class to do data collection. I haven't finished the schedule yet, but I'll definitely have it ready by the end of this week. A full rough draft of your IA is due on November 1st. By "full" I mean complete. I will not accept partially written IAs. If you have not gotten your IA approved, then you need to get it done before the end of the week.
This semester SL will cover Chapters 6: Kinetics, 7: Equilibrium, 8: Acids & Bases, and 9: Redox Reactions. For HL, you will also cover Chapters 16, 17, 18 and 19.
There are labs for each chapter, obviously. Because we have so much to cover, it is expected that you will keep up with the content we are unable to cover in class. I'll let you know when this becomes necessary. A failure to keep up with the work means that once you get behind, it is difficult to catch up. So please don't do that to yourself, especially HL students. Remember that HL covers twice as much material as SL in the same amount of time.
All right. Let's get into it.
Click HERE for Kinetics Missions. Click HERE for Equilibrium Missions.
Click HERE to find information on the Winkler Method and the relationship between the equilibrium constant K and redox reactions.
Housekeeping: Happy New Year!!! I hope your holiday was as awesome as mine.
Your IAs should be uploaded by end of school today. No excuses.
On January 24-25, we will travel to Ciwidey for you to study the ecosystem for your G4 project. We have not yet assigned work groups. When we do, you'll know. Don't ask for preferences.
Mock exams take place the week of February 11-18, 2018. I believe that Paper 3 will have to be included in the mocks, as that's what happened last year. Which means we will spend this month covering Option C, just to be sure. The best way to cover Option C: Energy is to break the chapter up into sections and assign you a section to teach. You will work in pairs.
Your lesson should be no more than 35 minutes long. All lessons must include:
1. Some sort of introduction and/or warmup
2. Section Objectives
3. Notes for students to take (make use of the YouTube videos on Option C)
4. Short lecture and explanation of the concepts (minimum 8 minutes, maximum 12 minutes)
5. Images, diagrams, concept maps, handouts etc.
6. Review of the lesson objectives and a Q/A session
7. Lesson Summary
8. Practice problems*
*I will provide practice problem resources. If you want to do an activity, like Kahoot or anything like that, it's fine.
You can do a PowerPoint presentation (or something to this effect), create handouts, construct a wiki or webpage...any combination of presentation methods you want to obtain the best possible grade. Anything that is digital, please send it to me so that I can make it available on the website for everybody.
We will do two presentations every 45 minutes starting January 18, 2019.
This assignment will count as a _______ grade. I will develop a rubric and have it ready by ___________.
The topics are listed below. Topics that are AHL must be covered by AHL students.
C1: Energy Sources Dr. Holt (January 17, 2019)
C2: Fossil Fuels HANA & JOO HUN (January 18, 2019)
C3: Nuclear Fission & Fusion MATTHEW & TOM (January 18, 2019)
C4: Solar Energy MIN KYU & JEFFREY (January 21, 2019)
C5: Environmental Impact AUDREY & CARLSTON (January 21, 2019)
C6: Electrochemistry, Rechargeable Batteries & Fuel Cells (AHL) HUGO (2/1/19)
C7: Nuclear Fusion & Fission (AHL) Dr. Holt (January 31, 2019)
C8: Photovoltaic Cells & Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (AHL) CLARA (2/1/19)
Housekeeping: We are now investigating spectroscopy. This is the last chapter for SL and HL content. Everything we do after this week will be related to your IA, the G4 project, or prep for mock exams in February. I won't cover Option C: Energy until after mock exams. You should have your graded IAs no later than next Monday. You guys got a lot of work to do.
I emailed you some practice questions for this section, but I don't plan to quiz you over it. Please download the questions.
Textbook: Chapter 11.3
Links: Understanding Chemistry Virtual Textbook
Click HERE for Missions.
Housekeeping: We are now in Chapter 10: Organic Chemistry. I have provided you a set of notes that we will fill in as we go along. Organic chemistry has an incredible amount of detail. You need to be able to read, count, name and sketch different organic compounds.
Textbook: Chapter 10 (SL) & Chapter 20 (HL)
Links: Understanding Chemistry Virtual Textbook
Downloads: Organic Chem Notes
Click below for the Missions.
10.2: Functional Groups
20.1: Types of Organic Reactions
20.2: Synthetic Routes
Housekeeping: We are now in Chapter 9: Redox Processes. We will have to set a date for the exam today. It needs to be around the end of the month, as you have another week-long lab for Section 9.2.
Hopefully you are making progress with your IA.
9.1: Redox Processes I: Oxidation & Reduction
9.2: Redox Processes II: Electrochemical Cells
Housekeeping: Welcome back to school! A reminder:
IA Due Dates
September 10, 2018: First half of draft (RQ, hypothesis, IV/DV/Controls, background research and personal engagement)
November 1, 2018: Rough draft of entire paper
January 10, 2019: Final paper
These dates are non-negotiable.
Last spring, SL finished Chapter 8, Acids & Bases. For the next week, SL will be on release while HL covers Chapter 18. SL needs to use this time to work on IAs.
Textbook: Chapter 18
Click HERE for Missions
HL Practice Problems
The IB Exams are in May. After Spring Break, you will do timed practice papers each week. In order to keep to the scheduled times (listed below), you will do Paper 2s on Mondays, Paper 1s on Thursdays, and Paper 3s on Fridays.
Paper 1: 45 minutes for SL; 1 hour for HL
Paper 2: 1h 15 min for SL; 2h 15 min for HL
Paper 3: 1 h for SL; 1h 15 min for HL
C5: Environmental Impact
Above image courtesy of Pearson.
Evidence exists that increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere produced by human activities are changing the climate. This upsets the balance between radiation entering and exiting the atmosphere that leads to climate change. Sunlight has a range of wavelengths (see p. 680 in your text). The highest frequencies are absorbed by the upper atmosphere, allowing some UV, visible and longer wavelengths to reach the surface where they are absorbed. The waves re-emitted from the surface are longer wavelength infrared. These waves interact with carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor (the main greenhouse gases) which capture this energy so that it remains trapped in Earth's atmosphere.
The IR radiation interacts with the covalent bonds of greenhouse gas molecules, causing them to bend and stretch. The IR radiation causes the molecules to vibrate, achieving resonance. The C-H, C=O, and O-H bonds in greenhouse gases have resonant frequencies of vibration in the IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Image courtesy of Wikipedia.
Water vapor accounts for 95% of all greenhouse gases. As the Earth warms up, more surface water evaporates and this increases the atmospheric water vapor concentration. The atmosphere then absorbs more IR radiation and causes increased warming. However, much of the water vapor condenses into clouds which block sunlight, causing global dimming and cooling the planet.
Carbon dioxide emissions have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution. Page 682 in your text shows the average CO2 increases for the 20th century and the global land-temperature index.
The main sources of greenhouse gas emissions are: burning fossil fuels (which accounts for 50% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases), industrial gases from factories that produce not only CO2, but also nitrogen oxides (which account for 25% of human greenhouse gas production, and agriculture/deforestation (the remaining 25%).
Burning fossil fuels release the carbon dioxide that comes from hydrocarbons previously stored underground. Industrial gases introduce not only CO2 but also other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (which do not occur naturally). Agriculture increases methane concentration from farty animals such as sheep and cows who generate methane in their digestive systems. Deforestation increases CO2 because with fewer trees, less carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere and used in photosynthesis.
A carbon sink is anything that absorbs more carbon than it releases as carbon dioxide. Of all the CO2 gas that is released into the atmosphere by human activity, approximately half has remained in the atmosphere. The rest is removed to carbon sinks, such as the oceans, resulting in CO2 concentrations rising by about 1% per year. About 30% of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed by the oceans.
Page 684 breaks down the chemistry that occurs between CO2 gas and aqueous CO2 occurring at the ocean's surface. CO2 itself is not very soluble. The overall process produces a small positive delta H, which increases the temperature and shifts equilibrium to the left and lowers the ability of CO2 to dissolve in water.
Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process of capturing waste CO2 from where it is produced, transporting it to a storage site, and storing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, such as an underground geological formation. See page 685 for a detailed list.
Methane and nitrous oxide are the main greenhouse gases produced in agriculture. Methane is 25X as powerful a greenhouse gas as CO2 while nitrous oxide has over 300X the impact. Changing from nitrogen-based fertilizers to crop rotation methods could increase the levels of CCS and reduce emissions. The use of urban space to grow crops could subsidize local communities and reduce transport costs.
Smoke, dust particles and clouds reflect sunlight back into space, causing global dimming which cools the Earth's surface. Soot and ash can change the properties of clouds, polluting them and causing them to reflect more light than normal clouds. Global dimming has harmful effects: causing acid rain, decreased evaporation rate for water, and health problems such as asthma.