B1 begins with an introduction. Subtopics are: metabolic pathways, biomolecules, condensation & hydrolysis reactions, photosynthesis & respiration.
Ribosomes connect amino acids to make proteins. Condensation reactions allow the process to take place. The process produces a peptide bond that creates a protein and a water molecule. Peptide bonds combines two amino acids to make a dipeptide. A chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide, and most proteins are polypeptides. When polypeptides are synthesized at ribosomes under the control of DNA, the reaction that takes place is a condensation reaction. The amino acid sequence is determined by the DNA, but the condensation reactions are the same.
Proteins have a variety of functions. As a result, they have many different forms and structures. Function follows form, which means the function of any particular protein is closely related to its structure. Protein structures are 3D; they can be folded, elongated, and helical. When proteins are folded, hydrogen bonds stabilize the molecule. There are four levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.